Crash Ratings Understanding and Choosing the Best for Your Project

Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works provides perimeter security and access control products and services to Businesses, Industries and The United States Government.

Non-rated, Rated, Certified, K-Rated, P1, L2 – so many options!

It’s easy to get lost in the terminology and just as easily confused on how it applies to your organizations vital assets safety and protection. Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works has documented the Common US Standards; and has even included information on British Standards PAS 68 to help in making the best decision when choosing to protect your assets – the correct decision.

Terms To Know

Crash-Rated Barrier

A barrier that has been crash tested and certified by a certifying agency such as DOS, DOD, ASTM, BSI (British Standards) There are cases of this term being used to describe products that have not been tested or certified by any agency or observer. If there is a doubt, ask for a copy of the certificate from the certifying agency.

Engineer-Rated or Non-Crash Rated

A barrier that has been designed, analyzed, and stamped by a professional erg barriers with this rating have been analyzed using computer modeling programs. Some products are structurally analyzed to determine crash-worthiness while others are designed based on the design and testing of similar products.

Definition of Standards

To date, the Department of State (DoS), Department of Defense (DoD), US General Administration (GSA)/Interagency Security Committee (ISC) and ASTM have developed rating systems and requirements and/or testing standards. The United Kingdom also has adopted a testing and rating standard which some of the proprietary systems have used for testing.

Rating systems are defined by some combination of the size, velocity and angle of approach of the design vehicle (which can be translated into Kinetic Energy) and the allowable penetration distance. Prior to specifying anti-ram performance requirements the design team should understand the different rating systems and the proof of performance methods that may be required by the specification.

The original DoS rating system and test standard was published in SD-STD-02.01 Certification Standard: Test Method for Vehicle Crash Testing of Perimeter Barriers and Gates, dated April 1985. This was subsequently revised in SD-STD-02.01, Revision A Certification Standard: Test Method for Vehicle Crash Testing of Perimeter Barriers and Gates, dated March 2003.

Ratings and Testing Requirements by The Department of State

SD-STD-02.01 Certification Standard


Barriers where the penetration of the cargo bed must not exceed one (1) meter beyond the pre-impact inside edge of the barrier. The rating of the barrier is determined when a 15,000 lb. (6810 kg) gross-weight vehicle impacts the barrier from a perpendicular direction.


“K” indicates the DOS certified barrier speed rating’s maximum vehicle impact speed achieved when a vehicle traveling at normal speed is successfully arrested by the barrier from a perpendicular direction.

K12 50 mph (80 kph)
K8 40 mph (65 kph)
K4 30 mph (48 kph)

Ratings and Testing Requirements by The Department of Defense

SD-STD-02.01, Revision A Certification Standard


Barriers meeting the certification criteria SD-STD-02.01, Revision A, dated March 2003 (with the exception of penetration) which has been evaluated to the previous SD-STD-02.01, dated April 1985. All barriers that are certified to the current DOS Certified Anti-Ram Vehicle Barriers List are considered to be DOD Certified.


“K” indicates the DOS certified barrier speed rating’s maximum vehicle impact speed achieved when a vehicle traveling at normal speed is successfully arrested by the barrier from a perpendicular direction.

K12 50 mph (80 kph)
K8 40 mph (65 kph)
K4 30 mph (48 kph)

“L” indicates the distance of penetration of the cargo bed beyond the pre-impact edge of the inside of the barrier.
L3 3 ft. (915 mm) or less
L2 3 ft. to 20 ft. (915 mm to 6.1 m)
L1 20 ft. to 50 ft. (6.1 m to 15.3 m)

What’s the Difference in DOS and DOD Standards?

From a rating system perspective, the primary change in the 1985 to the 2003 document was the removal of different allowable penetration distances. The 1985 document utilized “L” ratings to describe the amount of penetration that occurred from the medium duty truck travelling at the nominal impact speed. The 2003 document removed the different penetration distances and now requires that all barriers receiving a DoS certification allow no more than 1 m (3.33 ft) penetration beyond the inside perimeter of the barrier. 

The penetration distance is measured based on reference points on both the vehicle and the barrier system. The reference points in the 2003 standard are at the leading edge of the test vehicle’s cargo bed and at the inside face (e.g. non-impact side) of the barrier. Distances are based on the dynamic penetration, that is the maximum penetration distance as opposed to the final penetration distance. 

The following table provides the previous penetration rating system used by DoS. This is provided as many of the early proprietary systems were certified using the “L” penetration rating system. While the tested systems with penetration distances greater than 1 m (3.3ft) no longer meet DoS requirements, they may be correlated with the new ASTM Rating System (described below) which may be useful in DoD projects which have more flexibility as to the requirements of the vehicle barrier systems.

DoS Penetration Ratings (no longer used for DoS projects)

Designation Penetration 

L 3.0 <=1m (3.3 ft) 
L 2.0 <= 6m (20 ft) 
L 1.0 <= 15m (50 ft)

Ratings and Requirements by The US General Services Administration

ASTM International Designation F 2656-07 Certification Standard

The General Services Administration first published their blast/security design criteria, Draft GSA Security Design Criteria, in 1998. Before this document was finalized, the Interagency Security Committee (ISC) was established and the GSA document was updated and published as the Interagency Security Committee Security Design Criteria for New Federal Office Buildings and Major Modernization Projects in May 2001. 

The ISC document provides design vehicle weights and velocities but does not prescribe testing requirements, kinetic energy, or certification requirements. ISC vehicle weights and velocities are tied to the level of protection required for the specific facility being protected.

Ratings and Requirements by ASTM

ASTM International Designation F 2656-07 Certification Standard

ASTM has developed a Standard Test Method for Vehicle Crash Testing of Perimeter Barriers, Standard F-2656-07. This standard builds on the DoS standards and expands if for a wider range of project requirements (i.e. different vehicle sizes, additional velocities, and allowable penetration distances).


This test method provides a structured procedure to establish a penetration rating for perimeter barriers subjected to a vehicle impact. Knowing the penetration rating provides the ability to select an appropriate barrier for site-specific conditions around a facility.

The barrier penetration rating does not imply that a barrier will perform as rated in all site conditions, approach routes, and topography, Also, only single specimen tests at a specified impact location are required by this test method, and therefore, not all points of impact can be tested and validated for the penetration rating. Other impact locations may respond differently.

Typical Test Vehicle (weight)
RATING (speed) (test range) Kinetic Energy (ft-kips)

Small passenger car (C) (2430lbs)
C40 (40mph) (38.0-46.9 mph) 131
C50 (50mph) (47.0-56.9 mph) 205
C60 (60mph) (57.Omph-above) 295

Pickup truck (P)2300 (5070lbs)
PU40 (40 mph) (38.0-46.9 mph) 273
PU50 (50 mph) (47.0-56.9 mph) 426
PU60 (60 mph) (57.0-above mph) 613

Medium-duty truck (M) (15 000lbs)
M3050 (30 mph) (28.0-37.9 mph) 415
M4065 (40 mph) (38.0-46.9 mph) 802
M5080 (50 mph) (47.0-above mph) 1250

Heavy goods vehicle (H) (65 000lbs)
H30 (30 mph) (28.0-37.9 mph) 1950
H40 (40 mph) (38.0-46.9 mph) 3470
H50 (50 mph) (47.0-above mph) 5430

P” indicates the test vehicle’s distance of penetration upon impact with barrier.
P1 <1 m (3.3 ft)
P2 1.01 to 7 m (3.31 to 23.0 ft)
P3 7.01 to 30 m (23.1 to 98.4 ft)
P4 30 m (98 ft) or greater

Example: A M30 P1 crash barrier is designed to stop à Medium Duty Truck (M) traveling 30mph with a penetration distance of <3.3ft

Ratings and Requirements by The Department of Defense

The DoD no longer has a proprietary rating system (the Navy had a rating system, but it is no longer in use). Performance requirements for specific projects are based on either the DoS or the ASTM testing standards and rating systems. While the DoS and GSA have a limited array of impact conditions and/or penetration ratings which are required for projects, the DoD has the ability to tailor specific project requirements to site, threat, and asset conditions.

United Kingdom Ratings and Requirements

PAS 68:2007 Certification Standard

The prevalent anti-ram testing standard in the United Kingdom is the Publicly Available Specification: PAS 68:2007. This standard is based on similar premises as the DoS and ASTM documents. The PAS allows testing by vehicle impact or pendulum impact and allows analysis (Design) for extrapolating test results to alternate ratings or system configurations. The PAS 68 provides 3 classification systems based on the method of classification (i.e. vehicle impact, pendulum impact or analysis).

Vehicle Impact: four-part classification system preceded by a “V”.

  • Barrier Type 
  • Test Weight/Velocity
  • Vehicle Penetration 
  • Dispersion of Major Debris 

Pendulum Impact: three-part classification system preceded by a “P”. 

  • Barrier Type 
  • Test Energy 
  • Pendulum Weight/Release Height

Design Method: two-part classification systems preceded by a “D”. 

  • Barrier Type 
  • Design Energy

A classification through the vehicle impact test method will be the closest to a DoS or ASTM rating. The vehicle weight categories of the ASTM standards and the PAS 68 can roughly be compared as shown in the following table, with the PAS 68 vehicle weights larger than the corresponding ASTM vehicle weight. There are other differences in the vehicles, based on the vehicle configuration differences between the United States and the United Kingdom.

ASTM -vs- PAS 68 Vehicle Weights 

ASTM Test Vehicle Weight PAS 68 Vehicle Weights
1,100 kg 1,500 kg 
2,300 kg (5,070 lbm) 2.500 kg 
3,500 kg 
6,800 kg (15,000 lbm) 7,500 kg 
29,500 kg (65,000 lbm) 32,000 kg

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Formula 1 Las Vegas Grand Prix Paddock and Headquarters

In June 2023, Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works, Inc. began the installation of the entire perimeter security package for the F1 Headquarters and Paddock in Las Vegas. This project will include a variety of welded wire fencing, permanent and removable, as well as a large number of gates. We are proud to be a part of the centerpiece to this historic event in Las Vegas.

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In January 2023, Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works, Inc. will begin breaking ground on the perimeter security package for the Intuit Dome and new home for the Los Angeles Clippers. This project will include the entire Perimeter Iron Fencing and Gates, K-Rated Bollards, Hydraulic Wedge Barriers, and Guard Booths.

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A nationally recognized commercial fence contractor, Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works provides perimeter security and access control products to business, industry and the government.

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A nationally recognized company in High Security Solutions, Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works provides perimeter security and access control products to Businesses, Industries and The United States Government.

Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works specializes in custom design and installation of all your safety and security needs with over 50 years of providing knowledge, experience, and superior craftsmanship.

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Getting to Know Us

Providing Superior Quality and Excellence for Generations.

Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works, Inc. is owned and managed by Paul Chavez and Nick Chavez, third generation of fence erectors. Their Knowledge and experience allows for diversification and expansion of products and services. They continue tradition of quality craftsmanship and outstanding service.

Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works, Inc. was founded by Floyd Chavez and Fred Chavez who each had over 50 years of experience in the industry.

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Client Testimonials

Paul and his team are excellent at addressing challenges thrown at them. They do not make excuses on why things cannot be done; they solve problem for you by doing what can be done. When we were in a bind, Paul would throw resources at our project to make sure we were successful. Their attitude is a great fit for our high-visibility and high-maintenance project in San Francisco. Additionally, Golden Bay’s crew cared for installed work by others, and took great care to make sure their metals were protected during transport. I would definitely like to work with them again.

– Dominic Fung | Project Manager, Walsh Construction Company

I would like to extend my utmost gratitude to Mike and his crew of workers ( Golden Bay Fence Plus ) for installing the new fences at Rio Vista. Thank Mike and his crew for their hard work and dedication since June 16, 2022. I’ve seen lots of contracted crews at Rio Vista in the years that I have worked here. They would leave the place unkept, tools left out, gates left open etc. Mike’s crew has always been polite, professional, well mannered and gentlemen. Not one time did they leave any of the areas that they were working at unkept, they cleaned up and made sure the gates were closed and locked. If it were left up to me I would have Mikes men (Golden Bay Fence Plus) contracted to do all MDUSD schools that need new fencing.

– Gerald Glasper | Mt Diablo Unified School District

Huge thanks to the whole Golden Bay Fence Team for the outstanding work put in place at the Las Vegas Stadium. You were faced with numerous challenges, but there wasn’t a fence or barrier that could prevent the GBF team from getting done!!! I hope to work with your team in the future!

– Jeff Tharp, Project Manager at Mortenson | McCarthy Joint Venture

I have enjoyed working with you and your team on many projects over the years. I hold you and your team in high regards. It is refreshing to work with someone who possesses the character that you do; furthermore, these attributes are reflected by all individuals in your organization and the execution of each project…look forward too many more years of project partnerships.

– Jan Kelleter, Chief Estimator at Robert A Bothman Construction

 I have worked with Golden Bay Fence on numerous projects over the years at the San Jose airport ranging from temporary security fence to installing the new perimeter security fence and barrier wall. Both their crews in the field and their office staff do excellent work.  I would highly recommend them for any upcoming project!

– Jim Mitchell, Senior Project Manager at Graniterock Company

 It has been a real pleasure working with your team at Pleasant Hill Elem. School perimeter security fence. I can’t say enough about Mike Root, Leo, Alex and the rest of your crew for their A++ customer service. I have zero complaints from the site and that is a testament to your crew. Keep up the good work!! I will definitely put you in my A list contractors for all of our future projects large or small. Thanks once again.

– Dinah Baharin, Senior Construction Manager at Mount Diablo Unified School District

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Contact Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works and discover how we can help you from making choices in material, discussing crash ratings and what is most suitable for your organization or business; Golden Bay Fence Plus Iron Works can all lead the project from start to finish with General Contracting Services. Simply send us a brief message and a representative will contact you to further discuss your project needs.

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